Candy Crush? Aligning Health, Business and Pleasure in the Chocolate Industry

07 June 2018 | Cases | Marketing

Abstract: After winning important battles against soda, governments and health activists are targeting chocolate bars because of their high sugar content, and some, like the UK government in 2017, have set strict targets on the amount of sugar and calories that can be contained in each chocolate bar. In addition to stricter regulation, large incumbent chocolate makers like Nestlé, Mars, Hershey, Cadbury, and Ferrero must manage evolving consumer tastes as well as new competition from healthier bars and snacks. How they respond can significantly impact public health and business performance, as well as the everyday experience of eating treats. Can health, business, and pleasure ever align in the chocolate industry?... »

Can Barry Callebaut Attract Sustainable Investment with its ‘Forever Chocolate’ Strategy?

05 June 2018 | Cases | Finance

Abstract Barry Callebaut, a Zurich-based chocolate and cocoa manufacturer founded by Klaus Johann Jacobs in 1996, was the world’s leading manufacturer of high-quality chocolate and cocoa products. It was one of the first companies to realize that it had to do something about the poor conditions on cocoa farms. In its ‘Forever Chocolate’ plan for 2025, Callebaut committed to scale up its own as well as the industry initiatives to raise industry standards through its four bold targets in the chocolate supply chain. In 2017, the Swiss chocolate giant entered into an innovative revolving credit facility agreement with a syndicate of 13 banks with ING as the sustainability coordinator. As part of this, interest rate was linked to... »


05 June 2018 | Cases | Finance

Abstract In early 2016, the largest state-owned Oil Company in the world, Saudi Arabia-based Saudi Aramco (Aramco), declared a proposal to float an IPO. The crown prince of Saudi Arabia, Prince Salman, had stunned the world when he declared in early 2016 that Aramco’s worth would be around $2 trillion. Aramco was not only an oil company but a budget to run the nation as 85% of Saudi Arabia’s budget came from the tax which Aramco had to pay. The intent to monetize the state jewel came at a time when the economy of the Kingdom was under pressure. A widening fiscal deficit and depleting foreign reserves indicated that it was no longer viable to depend on oil... »

Regulations for a Sustainable Finance Sector

05 June 2018 | Cases | Finance

Abstract This case describes the deliberations of a financial regulation policymaker at the Dutch Central Bank, Johanna Baks. She is asked by the central bank’s Board to recommend regulations that are conducive to the Netherlands curbing climate change, since the Board officially recognizes this as a threat to long-term financial stability. The financial sector claims that a lower capital requirement for catastrophe bonds and climate bonds is the solution. Johanna researches this option, as well as several other ones. These other potential financial regulations are: mandatory inclusion of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors in supervised financial institutions’ internal models, mandatory public disclosure of ESG factors of the organizations’ investments, a financial transaction tax, prohibiting universal banking and/or... »

Babban Gona’s Agri-Franchising Model: Scaling up Challenges

05 June 2018 | Cases | Agriculture

Abstract Africa’s most populous country, Nigeria, is home to millions of smallholder farmers who, due to low economies of scale, have some of the lowest yields in the world, making subsistence farming unsustainable for them. This has led to large-scale unemployment, especially among the youth. Poverty, unemployment, and a rapidly growing population have made Nigeria a breeding ground for extremist organizations like the Boko Haram. Kola Masha through his for-profit social enterprise, Babban Gona, is taking this challenge head-on by creating an innovative agricultural franchise model which provides professional management and investment for grass-root level farmer groups. Babban Gona’s holistic end-to-end service delivery model has resulted in farmers reducing their input costs, increasing their yields, realizing a higher... »